Saturday, 27 October 2012

bhArata sAvitrI - Mahabharata Svargarohana parva

bhArata sAvitrI from mahAbhArata - svargarohaNa parva
[Extracted from Kisari Mohan Ganguli's translation of Mahabharata [1883-1896]]

Sauti said:
...The high race of the Bharatas is its topic. Hence it is called Bharata. And because of its  grave import, as also of the Bharatas being its topic, it is called Mahabharata. He who is  versed in interpretations of this great treatise, becomes cleansed of every sin. Such a man lives in righteousness(dharma), wealth(artha), and pleasure(kAma), and attains to Emancipation(moksha) also, O chief of Bharatas race.

That which occurs here occurs elsewhere. That which does not occur here occurs nowhere else. This history is known by the name of Jaya. It should be heard by every one desirous of Emancipation (moksha). It should be read by Brahmanas, by kings, and by women quick with children. He that desires Heaven attains to Heaven; and he that desires victory attains to victory. The woman quick with child gets either a son or a daughter highly blessed. The puissant Island-born Krishna (veda-vyAsa), who will not have to come back, and who is Emancipation incarnate, made an abstract of the Bharata, moved by the desire of aiding the cause of righteousness. He made another compilation consisting of sixty lakhs of verses. Thirty lakhs of these were placed in the region of the deities(deva loka). In the region of the Pitris fifteen lakhs, it should be known, are current; while in that of the Yakshas fourteen lakhs are in vogue. One lakh is current among human beings.

Narada recited the Mahabharata to the gods; Asita-Devala to the Pitris; Suka to the Rakshasas and the Yakshas; and Vaishampayana to human beings. This history is sacred, and of high import, and regarded as equal to the Vedas. That man, O Saunaka, who hears this history, placing a Brahmana before him, acquires both fame and the fruition of all his wishes. He who, with fervid devotion, listens to a recitation of the Mahabharata, attains (hereafter) to high success in consequence of the merit that becomes his through understanding even a very small portion thereof. All the sins of that man who recites or listens to this history with devotion are washed off.

In former times, the great Rishi Vyasa, having composed this treatise, caused his son Suka to read it with him, along with these four Verses (bhArata sAvitrI).

bhArata savitrI:-

मातापितृ सहस्राणि पुत्रदार शतानि च |
संसारेष्वनुभूतानि  यान्ति यास्यन्ति चापरे ||
mAtApitR sahasrANi putradAra shatAni ca |
saMsAreShv-anubhUtAni yAnti yAsyanti cApare ||
Thousands of mothers and fathers, and hundreds of sons and wives arise in the world and depart from it. Others will (arise and) similarly depart.

हर्षस्थान सहस्राणि भयस्थान शतानि च |
दिवसे दिवसे मूढं आविशन्ति न पण्डितम्  ||
harShasthAna sashasrANi bhayasthAna shatAni ca |
divase divase mUDhaM Avishanti na paNditam ||
There are thousands of occasions for joy and hundreds of occasions for fear. These affect only him that is ignorant (mUDha) but never him that is wise (paNDita).

ऊर्ध्व बाहुर्विरौम्येष न च कश्चिच्छृ णोति मे  |
धर्मादर्थश्च कामश्च स किमर्थं न सेव्यते ||
Urdhva bAhur-viraumyeSha na ca kashcicchRNoti me |
dharmAdarthashca kAmashca sa kimarthaM na sevyate ||
With uplifted arms I am crying aloud but nobody hears me. From Righteousness (dharma) is Wealth (artha) as also Pleasure (kAma). Why should not Righteousness (dharma), therefore, be courted (followed)?

न जातु कामान्न भयान्न लोभाद् 
        धर्मे त्यजेज्जीवितस्यापि हेतो: |
नित्यो धर्म: सुखदु:खे त्वनित्ये 
        जीवो नित्यो हेतुरस्य त्वनित्य: ||
na jAtu kAmAnna bhayAnna lobhAd
        dharme tyajej-jIvitas-yApi hetoHo |
nityo dharmaH sukhaduHkhe tvanitye

        jIvo nityo heturasya tvanityaH ||
For the sake neither of pleasure (kAma), nor of fear, nor of cupidity (lobha) should any one cast off Righteousness (dharma). Indeed, for the sake of even life one should not cast off Righteousness (dharma). Righteousness is eternal. Pleasure and Pain are not eternal. JIva is eternal. The cause, however, of Jivas being invested with a body is not so.

इमां भारत सावित्रीं प्रातरुत्थाय य: पठेत्  |
स भारत फलं प्राप्य परं ब्रह्माधिगच्छति  ||
imAM bhArata sAvitrIM prAtarutthAya yaH paThet |

sa bhArata phalaM prApya paraM brahmAdhi-gacchati ||
That man who, waking up at dawn, reads this Savittri of the Bharata, acquires all the rewards attached to a recitation of this history (itihAsa - mahAbharata) and ultimately attains to the highest Brahma (param-brahma).

इति भारत सावित्री संपूर्णम् 
iti bhArata sAvitrI saMpUrNam

nArAyaNArpaNaM

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